They examine the Fst in mtDNA sequence between hunter-gatherer samples (13,400 to 2,300 ago) in Central Europe, from more recent individuals (and modern Europeans). I guess they must use archaeological or other evidence to determine their subsistence pattern.
They get an Fst of 0.163, which is indeed remarkably high - although do we really know what to expect when comparing populations over time? To answer this, they perform some simulations, and reject the hypothesis that this Fst could have been due to a process of population continuity.
Along with their discussion of the haplotype differences betwee the hunter-gatherers and farmers, this result is pretty interesting and suggests a migration of early farmers into central Europe and replacement of hunter-gatherers.
Genetic discontinuity between local hunter-gatherers and central Europe's first farmers.
Bramanti B, Thomas MG, Haak W, Unterlaender M, Jores P, Tambets K, Antanaitis-Jacobs I, Haidle MN, Jankauskas R, Kind CJ, Lueth F, Terberger T, Hiller J, Matsumura S, Forster P, Burger J.
Science 2009 Oct 2;326(5949):137-40.
Abstract: After the domestication of animals and crops in the Near East some 11,000 years ago, farming had reached much of central Europe by 7500 years before the present. The extent to which these early European farmers were immigrants or descendants of resident hunter-gatherers who had adopted farming has been widely debated. We compared new mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from late European hunter-gatherer skeletons with those from early farmers and from modern Europeans. We find large genetic differences between all three groups that cannot be explained by population continuity alone. Most (82%) of the ancient hunter-gatherers share mtDNA types that are relatively rare in central Europeans today. Together, these analyses provide persuasive evidence that the first farmers were not the descendants of local hunter-gatherers but immigrated into central Europe at the onset of the Neolithic.