From the website of Doggie DNAPrint:
For example, in 2004 Parker et al. sequenced 75 SNP and 96 microsatellite loci in 85 dog breeds and showed that modern dog breeds are distinct genetic units and that breed can be accurately determined from dog DNA. Looking back relatively far in the dog family tree, Parker et al. noted that there appear to be 4 main dog breed types:
- The wolf-like (yellow in the K=4 part of Figure 1)
- The Herders (green in the K=4 part of Figure 1)
- The Hunters (red in the K=4 part of Figure 1), and
- The Mastiff (blue in the K=4 part of Figure 1)
Figure 1 (above) shows some of their data (Figure 3 of Parker et al., 2004), where dog breeds are clustered based on their affinity with the founders or parental dog populations for each of these 3 ancestral groups. Dog breeds such as the Akita, Chow Chow and Siberian Husky fall into the Wolf-Like group, Collies, Greyhounds, Borzoi etc. fall into the Herder group, Beagles, Pointers and Terriers (etc.) fall into the Hunter group and Bulldogs, Mastiffs, Boxers (etc.) fall into the Mastiff group.You will note that, due to the history of their origins, each breed is characterized by a unique ratio of admixture among these families.